Gaelic deutsch

gaelic deutsch

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Gaelic' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung für 'Gaelic' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Gaelic im Online-Wörterbuch youthmentalhealth2014.eu ( Deutschwörterbuch).

In the Nova Scotia census, people claimed to have Gaelic as their first language , a figure that includes Irish Gaelic. It also broadcasts across Europe on the Astra 2 satellites.

There are also television programmes in the language on other BBC channels and on the independent commercial channels , usually subtitled in English.

The Education Scotland Act , which completely ignored Gaelic, and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language.

People still living can recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school. Gaelic-medium playgroups for young children began to appear in Scotland during the late s and early s.

Parent enthusiasm may have been a factor in the "establishment of the first Gaelic medium primary school units in Glasgow and Inverness in ".

The Columba Initiative , also known as colmcille formerly Iomairt Cholm Cille , is a body that seeks to promote links between speakers of Scottish Gaelic and Irish.

In May , the Nova Scotia government announced the funding of an initiative to support the language and its culture within the province. Several public schools in Northeastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton offer Gaelic classes as part of the high-school curriculum.

A number of Scottish and some Irish universities offer full-time degrees including a Gaelic language element, usually graduating as Celtic Studies.

Many continue to complete degrees, or to follow up as distance learners. A number of other colleges offer a one-year certificate course, which is also available online pending accreditation.

The isles of South Uist and Barra have a Catholic majority. All these churches have Gaelic-speaking congregations throughout the Western Isles.

The widespread use of English in worship has often been suggested as one of the historic reasons for the decline of Gaelic. The Church of Scotland is supportive today, [ vague ] but has a shortage of Gaelic-speaking ministers.

The Free Church also recently announced plans to abolish Gaelic-language communion services, citing both a lack of ministers and a desire to have their congregations united at communion time.

From the sixth century to the present day, Scottish Gaelic has been used as the language of literature.

Two prominent writers of the twentieth century are Anne Frater and Sorley Maclean. Gaelic has its own version of European-wide names which also have English forms, for example: Not all traditional Gaelic names have direct equivalents in English: Oighrig , which is normally rendered as Euphemia Effie or Henrietta Etta formerly also as Henny or even as Harriet , or, Diorbhal , which is "matched" with Dorothy , simply on the basis of a certain similarity in spelling.

Many of these traditional Gaelic-only names are now regarded as old-fashioned, and hence are rarely or never used. Some Scottish names are Anglicized forms of Gaelic names: Several colours give rise to common Scottish surnames: Although some vowels are strongly nasal, instances of distinctive nasality are rare.

There are about nine diphthongs and a few triphthongs. Most consonants have both palatal and non-palatal counterparts, including a very rich system of liquids , nasals and trills i.

In medial and final position, the aspirated stops are preaspirated rather than aspirated. Scottish Gaelic is an Indo-European language with an inflecting morphology , verb—subject—object word order and two grammatical genders.

They are also normally classed as either masculine or feminine. A small number of words that used to belong to the neuter class show some degree of gender confusion.

For example, in some dialects am muir "the sea" behaves as a masculine noun in the nominative case, but as a feminine noun in the genitive na mara.

Nouns are marked for case in a number of ways, most commonly involving various combinations of lenition , palatalisation and suffixation.

There are 12 irregular verbs. Word order is strictly verb—subject—object, including questions, negative questions and negatives.

Only a restricted set of preverb particles may occur before the verb. The majority of the vocabulary of Scottish Gaelic is native Celtic.

There are also many Brythonic influences on Scottish Gaelic. Scottish Gaelic contains a number of apparently P-Celtic loanwords, but it is not always possible to disentangle P and Q Celtic words.

Some speakers use an English word even if there is a Gaelic equivalent, applying the rules of Gaelic grammar. This phenomenon was described over years ago, by the minister who compiled the account covering the parish of Stornoway in the New Statistical Account of Scotland , and examples can be found dating to the eighteenth century.

Irish has also influenced Lowland Scots and English in Scotland, but it is not always easy to distinguish its influence from that of Scottish Gaelic.

The modern Scottish Gaelic alphabet has 18 letters:. The letter h , now mostly used to indicate lenition historically sometimes inaccurately called aspiration of a consonant , was in general not used in the oldest orthography , as lenition was instead indicated with a dot over the lenited consonant.

The letters of the alphabet were traditionally named after trees, but this custom has fallen out of use. Certain 18th century sources used only an acute accent along the lines of Irish, such as in the writings of Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair —51 and the earliest editions —90 of Duncan Ban MacIntyre.

The New Testament set the standard for Scottish Gaelic. The Scottish Examination Board recommendations for Scottish Gaelic, the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions, were adopted by most publishers and agencies, although they remain controversial among some academics, most notably Ronald Black.

The quality of consonants palatalised or non-palatalised is indicated in writing by the vowels surrounding them. So-called "slender" consonants are palatalised while "broad" consonants are neutral or velarised.

The vowels e and i are classified as slender, and a , o , and u as broad. The spelling rule known as caol ri caol agus leathann ri leathann "slender to slender and broad to broad" requires that a word-medial consonant or consonant group followed by a written i or e be also preceded by an i or e ; and similarly if followed by a , o or u be also preceded by an a , o , or u.

This rule sometimes leads to the insertion of an orthographic vowel that does not influence the pronunciation of the vowel. Unstressed vowels omitted in speech can be omitted in informal writing.

Gaelic orthographic rules are mostly regular; however, English sound-to-letter correspondences cannot be applied to written Gaelic.

Scots English orthographic rules have also been used at various times in Gaelic writing. Notable examples of Gaelic verse composed in this manner are the Book of the Dean of Lismore and the Fernaig manuscript.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Germanic language that diverged from Middle English, see Scots language.

For the Gaelic language family, see Goidelic languages. For the Gaelic language spoken in Ireland, see Irish language. History of Scottish Gaelic.

Norse-Gaelic zone, use of either or both languages. Cumbric may have survived in this zone. Old Irish and Classical Gaelic.

Linguistic divide in the middle ages. This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it. Gaelic broadcasting in Scotland. Gaelic medium education in Scotland.

Gaelic-speaking congregations in the Church of Scotland. Differences between Scottish Gaelic and Irish. Alphabet Dependent and independent verb forms.

Orthography Ogham Gaelic type Literature Dictionaries. Scotland portal linguistics portal. Official Languages Act Republic of Ireland.

Viewed 30 May Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 5 August The Edinburgh history of the Scots language.

The Makers of Scotland: Picts, Romans, Gaels, and Vikings. Bannerman, "Scottish Takeover", passim, representing the "traditional" view.

Gaelic in Scotland, — John Donald Publishers Ltd. Edinburgh Companion to the Gaelic Language. Language in Geographic Context.

The Last of the Celts. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 13 August The Making of the Crofting Community.

How the Scottish Gaels got the Scriptures in their own Tongue". Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness.

Gaelic in Nova Scotia: Province of Nova Scotia. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 25 October Retrieved 25 October Viewed 23 June Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 23 June Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 3 March Celtic language revitalization in Scotland and Wales: The University of Edinburgh.

A Past and Future Prospect. Scottish Human Rights Commission. Archived from the original on Working Paper 10 — R.

Archived PDF from the original on 26 September Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 24 April The Irish language is also one of the languages of the Celtic League , a non-governmental organisation that promotes self-determination and Celtic identity and culture in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany , Cornwall and the Isle of Man, known as the Celtic nations.

It places particular emphasis on the indigenous Celtic languages. Irish was spoken as a community language until the early 20th century on the island of Newfoundland , in a form known as Newfoundland Irish.

Of the 73, daily Irish speakers outside the education system , 20, Irish is represented by several traditional dialects and by various varieties of "urban" Irish.

The latter have acquired lives of their own and a growing number of native speakers. Differences between the dialects make themselves felt in stress, intonation, vocabulary and structural features.

Newfoundland , in eastern Canada, had a form of Irish derived from the Munster Irish of the later 18th century see Newfoundland Irish.

Of the three counties, the Irish spoken in Cork and Kerry are quiet similar while that of Waterford is more distinct. Historically, Connacht Irish represents the westernmost remnant of a dialect area which once stretched from east to west across the centre of Ireland.

Much closer to the larger Connacht Gaeltacht is the dialect spoken in the smaller region on the border between Galway Gaillimh and Mayo Maigh Eo.

Features in Connacht Irish differing from the official standard include a preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan , e. The non-standard pronunciation of the Gaeltacht Cois Fharraige area with lengthened vowels and heavily reduced endings gives it a distinct sound.

In addition Connacht and Ulster speakers tend to include the "we" pronoun rather than use the standard compound form used in Munster, e.

As in Munster Irish, some short vowels are lengthened and others diphthongised before - nn , - m , - rr , - rd , - ll , in monosyllabic words and in the stressed syllable of multisyllabic words where the syllable is followed by a consonant.

This placing of the B-sound is also present at the end of words ending in vowels, such as acu pronounced as "acub" and leo pronounced as "lyohab".

There is also a tendency to omit the "g" sound in words such as agam , agat and againn , a characteristic also of other Connacht dialects.

All these pronunciations are distinctively regional. The pronunciation prevalent in the Joyce Country the area around Lough Corrib and Lough Mask is quite similar to that of South Connemara, with a similar approach to the words agam , agat and againn and a similar approach to pronunciation of vowels and consonants.

But there are noticeable differences in vocabulary, with certain words such as doiligh difficult and foscailte being preferred to the more usual deacair and oscailte.

The northern Mayo dialect of Erris Iorras and Achill Acaill is in grammar and morphology essentially a Connacht dialect, but shows some similarities to Ulster Irish due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Plantation of Ulster.

Irish President Douglas Hyde was possibly one of the last speakers of the Roscommon dialect of Irish. Ulster Irish is the dialect spoken in the Gaeltacht regions of Donegal.

The Irish-speaking communities in other parts of Ulster are a result of language revival — English-speaking families deciding to learn Irish. Ulster Irish sounds quite different to the other two main dialects.

It shares several features with southern dialects of Scottish Gaelic and Manx , as well as having lots of characteristic words and shades of meanings.

However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see present-day Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.

Down to the early 19th century and even later, Irish was spoken in all twelve counties of Leinster. The evidence furnished by placenames, literary sources and recorded speech indicates that there were three dialects spoken in Leinster.

The main dialect was represented by a broad central belt stretching from west Connacht eastwards to the Liffey estuary and southwards to Wexford , though with many local variations.

Two smaller dialects were represented by the Ulster speech of counties Meath and Louth, which extended as far south as the Boyne valley , and a Munster dialect found in Kilkenny and south Laois.

The main dialect had characteristics which survive today only in the Irish of Connacht. It typically placed the stress on the first syllable of a word, and showed a preference found in placenames for the pronunciation cr where the standard spelling is cn.

The word cnoc hill would therefore be pronounced croc. East Leinster showed the same diphthongisation or vowel lengthening as in Munster and Connacht Irish in words like poll hole , cill monastery , coill wood , ceann head , cam crooked and dream crowd.

By the late 15th century it consisted of an area along the coast from Dalkey , south of Dublin , to the garrison town of Dundalk , with an inland boundary encompassing Naas and Leixlip in the Earldom of Kildare and Trim and Kells in County Meath to the north.

In this area of "Englyshe tunge" English had never actually been a dominant language - and was moreover a relatively late comer; the first colonisers were Normans who spoke Norman French, and before these Norse.

The Irish language had always been the language of the bulk of the population. With the strengthening of English cultural and political control, language change began to occur, but this did not become clearly evident until the 18th century.

English expanded strongly in Leinster in the 18th century, but Irish speakers were still numerous. In the decennial period —81 certain counties had estimated percentages of Irish speakers as follows though the estimates are likely to be too low: The proportion of Irish-speaking children in Leinster went down as follows: The Irish census of showed that there were still a number of older speakers in County Dublin.

Irish was spoken as a community language in Irish towns and cities down to the 19th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was widespread even in Dublin and the Pale.

The Irish of Dublin, situated as it was between the east Ulster dialect of Meath and Louth to the north and the Leinster-Connacht dialect further south, may have reflected the characteristics of both in phonology and grammar.

In County Dublin itself the general rule was to place the stress on the initial vowel of words. With time it appears that the forms of the dative case took over the other case endings in the plural a tendency found to a lesser extent in other dialects.

In a letter written in Dublin in we find such examples as the following: English authorities of the Cromwellian period, aware that Irish was widely spoken in Dublin, arranged for its official use.

In several local dignitaries were ordered to oversee a lecture in Irish to be given in Dublin. There is contemporary evidence of the use of Irish in other urban areas at the time.

In it was found necessary to have an Oath of Abjuration rejecting the authority of the Pope read in Irish in Cork so that people could understand it.

In other urban centres the descendants of medieval Anglo-Norman settlers, the so-called Old English , were Irish-speaking or bilingual by the 16th century.

The census of showed that the towns and cities of Munster still had significant Irish-speaking populations. This continued until the end of the century, when the Gaelic revival saw the creation of a strong Irish—speaking network, typically united by various branches of the Conradh na Gaeilge , and accompanied by renewed literary activity.

Urban Irish has been the beneficiary, over the last few decades, of a rapidly expanding independent school system, known generally as Gaelscoileanna.

These schools teach entirely through Irish, and there are over thirty in Dublin alone. It is likely that the number of urban native speakers i.

It is presently uncertain whether the urban Irish of non-native speakers will become a dialect in its own right or grow further apart from native Gaeltacht Irish and become a creole i.

Its rules are followed by most schools in Ireland, though schools in and near Irish-speaking regions also use the local dialect. There is no official standard for pronouncing the Irish language.

The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish. In recent decades contacts between speakers of different dialects have become more frequent and the differences between the dialects are less noticeable.

In pronunciation, Irish most closely resembles its nearest relatives, Scottish Gaelic and Manx. While broad—slender pairs are not unique to Irish being found, for example, in Russian , in Irish they have a grammatical function.

Irish is a fusional , VSO , nominative-accusative language. Irish is neither verb nor satellite framed , and makes liberal use of deictic verbs.

Nouns decline for 3 numbers: Adjectives agree with nouns in number , gender , and case. Adjectives generally follow nouns, though some precede or prefix nouns.

Demonstrative adjectives have proximal , medial , and distal forms. The prepositional case is called the dative by convention.

Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: Verbs conjugate for 3 persons and an impersonal form in which no agent can be determined. There are two verbs for "to be", one for inherent qualities , and one for transient qualities.

The passive voice and many other forms are periphrastic. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative , interrogative , subjunctive , relative clauses , etc.

There is a verbal noun , and verbal adjective. Verb forms are highly regular , many grammars recognise only 11 irregular verbs.

Prepositions inflect for person and number. Different prepositions govern different cases. Some prepositions govern different cases depending on intended semantics.

The word ag at , becomes agam at me in the first person singular. Irish shares this attribute with Russian. Numerals have 4 forms: In Irish, there are two classes of initial consonant mutations , which express grammatical relationship and meaning in verbs, nouns and adjectives:.

Mutations are often the only way to distinguish grammatical forms. For example, the only non-contextual way to distinguish possessive pronouns "her," "his" and "their", is through initial mutations since all meanings are represented by the same word a.

Due to initial mutation , prefixes , clitics , suffixes , root inflection , ending morphology , elision , sandhi , epinthesis , and assimilation ; the beginning, core, and end of words can each change radically and even simultaneously depending on context.

Modern Irish traditionally used the Latin alphabet without the letters j, k, q, w, x, y and z. However, some Gaelicised words use those letters: In idiomatic English usage, this diacritic is frequently referred to simply as the fada , where the adjective is used as a noun.

The fada serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality. In modern Irish, the letter h suffixed to a consonant indicates that the consonant is lenited.

It simplified and standardised the orthography. Many words had silent letters removed and vowel combination brought closer to the spoken language.

Where multiple versions existed in different dialects for the same word, one or more were selected. The standard spelling does not necessarily reflect the pronunciation used in particular dialects.

For example, in standard Irish, bia , "food", has the genitive bia. Another example would be the word crua , meaning "hard".

Lenition of c , p , and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of other sounds was left unmarked.

Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were written using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.

Today, Gaelic type and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e. Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character sets see Latin Extended Additional chart.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Goidelic Gaelic language spoken in Ireland and by Irish people.

For other uses, see Irish language disambiguation. United Kingdom Northern Ireland [4]. Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland censuses of History of the Irish language.

Status of the Irish language. Irish language in Northern Ireland. Irish language outside Ireland and Irish language in Newfoundland. Irish grammar , Irish declension , Irish conjugation , and Irish syntax.

It included Greek, Hebrew and Celtic neologisms. Elizabethan Ireland and the Poetics of Difference. Oxford University Press The Dialects of Irish: Study of a Changing Landscape.

Walter de Gruyter, The Sound Structure of Modern Irish. De Gruyter Mouton Scriptural Instruction in the Vernacular: The Irish Society and its Teachers — Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies From the Norman Invasion to Independence , Oxford, Garvin, Tom, Preventing the Future: Why was Ireland so poor for so long?

Hindley, Reg , new ed. The Death of the Irish Language: The Gaelic Revival and Irish Society, — Syracuse University Press Essays on the Linguistic and Cultural Frontier — Four Courts Press Language Use and Attitudes , ed.

Kim McCone and others. The Irish language" PDF. Archived PDF from the original on 11 October Retrieved 24 September Archived from the original PDF on 8 March Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 22 December Definition of Gaelic by Merriam-Webster".

Rules governing the languages of the institutions European Union, Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 19 February An example of the use of the word "Gaelic" to describe the language, seen throughout the text of the article.

Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 29 July

In the s, when the Irish Free State was founded, Irish was still a vernacular in some western coastal areas.

Today, the strongest Gaeltacht areas, numerically and socially, are those of South Connemara , the west of the Dingle Peninsula and northwest Donegal, where many residents still use Irish as their primary language.

Irish language summer colleges in the Gaeltacht are attended by tens of thousands of teenagers annually. All aspects of Irish culture and tradition are encouraged.

Before the partition of Ireland in , Irish was recognised as a school subject and as "Celtic" in some third level institutions.

Between and , Northern Ireland had devolved government. The context of this hostility was the use of the language by nationalists. In the St Andrews Agreement the British government promised to enact "an Irish Language Act" to promote the language [46] but as of it has yet to do so.

There is currently an ongoing debate in relation to the status of the language in the form of an Irish Language Act. Irish became an official language of the EU on 1 January , meaning that MEPs with Irish fluency can now speak the language in the European Parliament and at committees, although in the case of the latter they have to give prior notice to a simultaneous interpreter in order to ensure that what they say can be interpreted into other languages.

Any expansion in the range of documents to be translated will depend on the results of the first five-year review and on whether the Irish authorities decide to seek an extension.

The Irish government has committed itself to train the necessary number of translators and interpreters and to bear the related costs.

Before Irish became an official language it was afforded the status of treaty language and only the highest-level documents of the EU were made available in Irish.

The Irish language was carried abroad in the modern period by a vast diaspora , chiefly to Britain and North America, but also to Australia , New Zealand and Argentina.

The first large movements began in the 17th century, largely as a result of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland , which saw many Irish sent to the West Indies.

Irish emigration to the United States was well established by the 18th century, and was reinforced in the s by thousands fleeing from the Famine.

This flight also affected Britain. Up until that time most emigrants spoke Irish as their first language, though English was establishing itself as the primary language.

Irish speakers had first arrived in Australia in the late 18th century as convicts and soldiers, and many Irish-speaking settlers followed, particularly in the s.

New Zealand also received some of this influx. Argentina was the only non-English-speaking country to receive large numbers of Irish emigrants, and there were few Irish speakers among them.

Relatively few of the emigrants were literate in Irish, but manuscripts in the language were brought to both Australia and the United States, and it was in the United States that the first newspaper to make significant use of Irish was established: In Australia, too, the language found its way into print.

The Gaelic revival, which started in Ireland in the s, found a response abroad, with branches of Conradh na Gaeilge being established in all the countries to which Irish speakers had emigrated.

The decline of Irish in Ireland and a slowing of emigration helped to ensure a decline in the language abroad, along with natural attrition in the host countries.

Despite this, small groups of enthusiasts continued to learn and cultivate Irish in diaspora countries and elsewhere, a trend which strengthened in the second half of the 20th century.

Today the language is taught at tertiary level in North America, Australia and Europe, and Irish speakers outside Ireland contribute to journalism and literature in the language.

There are significant Irish-speaking networks in the United States and Canada; [51] figures released for the period — show that 22, Americans claimed to speak Irish at home.

The Irish language is also one of the languages of the Celtic League , a non-governmental organisation that promotes self-determination and Celtic identity and culture in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany , Cornwall and the Isle of Man, known as the Celtic nations.

It places particular emphasis on the indigenous Celtic languages. Irish was spoken as a community language until the early 20th century on the island of Newfoundland , in a form known as Newfoundland Irish.

Of the 73, daily Irish speakers outside the education system , 20, Irish is represented by several traditional dialects and by various varieties of "urban" Irish.

The latter have acquired lives of their own and a growing number of native speakers. Differences between the dialects make themselves felt in stress, intonation, vocabulary and structural features.

Newfoundland , in eastern Canada, had a form of Irish derived from the Munster Irish of the later 18th century see Newfoundland Irish. Of the three counties, the Irish spoken in Cork and Kerry are quiet similar while that of Waterford is more distinct.

Historically, Connacht Irish represents the westernmost remnant of a dialect area which once stretched from east to west across the centre of Ireland.

Much closer to the larger Connacht Gaeltacht is the dialect spoken in the smaller region on the border between Galway Gaillimh and Mayo Maigh Eo.

Features in Connacht Irish differing from the official standard include a preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan , e. The non-standard pronunciation of the Gaeltacht Cois Fharraige area with lengthened vowels and heavily reduced endings gives it a distinct sound.

In addition Connacht and Ulster speakers tend to include the "we" pronoun rather than use the standard compound form used in Munster, e.

As in Munster Irish, some short vowels are lengthened and others diphthongised before - nn , - m , - rr , - rd , - ll , in monosyllabic words and in the stressed syllable of multisyllabic words where the syllable is followed by a consonant.

This placing of the B-sound is also present at the end of words ending in vowels, such as acu pronounced as "acub" and leo pronounced as "lyohab".

There is also a tendency to omit the "g" sound in words such as agam , agat and againn , a characteristic also of other Connacht dialects.

All these pronunciations are distinctively regional. The pronunciation prevalent in the Joyce Country the area around Lough Corrib and Lough Mask is quite similar to that of South Connemara, with a similar approach to the words agam , agat and againn and a similar approach to pronunciation of vowels and consonants.

But there are noticeable differences in vocabulary, with certain words such as doiligh difficult and foscailte being preferred to the more usual deacair and oscailte.

The northern Mayo dialect of Erris Iorras and Achill Acaill is in grammar and morphology essentially a Connacht dialect, but shows some similarities to Ulster Irish due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Plantation of Ulster.

Irish President Douglas Hyde was possibly one of the last speakers of the Roscommon dialect of Irish. Ulster Irish is the dialect spoken in the Gaeltacht regions of Donegal.

The Irish-speaking communities in other parts of Ulster are a result of language revival — English-speaking families deciding to learn Irish.

Ulster Irish sounds quite different to the other two main dialects. It shares several features with southern dialects of Scottish Gaelic and Manx , as well as having lots of characteristic words and shades of meanings.

However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see present-day Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.

Down to the early 19th century and even later, Irish was spoken in all twelve counties of Leinster. The evidence furnished by placenames, literary sources and recorded speech indicates that there were three dialects spoken in Leinster.

The main dialect was represented by a broad central belt stretching from west Connacht eastwards to the Liffey estuary and southwards to Wexford , though with many local variations.

Two smaller dialects were represented by the Ulster speech of counties Meath and Louth, which extended as far south as the Boyne valley , and a Munster dialect found in Kilkenny and south Laois.

The main dialect had characteristics which survive today only in the Irish of Connacht. It typically placed the stress on the first syllable of a word, and showed a preference found in placenames for the pronunciation cr where the standard spelling is cn.

The word cnoc hill would therefore be pronounced croc. East Leinster showed the same diphthongisation or vowel lengthening as in Munster and Connacht Irish in words like poll hole , cill monastery , coill wood , ceann head , cam crooked and dream crowd.

By the late 15th century it consisted of an area along the coast from Dalkey , south of Dublin , to the garrison town of Dundalk , with an inland boundary encompassing Naas and Leixlip in the Earldom of Kildare and Trim and Kells in County Meath to the north.

In this area of "Englyshe tunge" English had never actually been a dominant language - and was moreover a relatively late comer; the first colonisers were Normans who spoke Norman French, and before these Norse.

The Irish language had always been the language of the bulk of the population. With the strengthening of English cultural and political control, language change began to occur, but this did not become clearly evident until the 18th century.

English expanded strongly in Leinster in the 18th century, but Irish speakers were still numerous. In the decennial period —81 certain counties had estimated percentages of Irish speakers as follows though the estimates are likely to be too low: The proportion of Irish-speaking children in Leinster went down as follows: The Irish census of showed that there were still a number of older speakers in County Dublin.

Irish was spoken as a community language in Irish towns and cities down to the 19th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was widespread even in Dublin and the Pale.

The Irish of Dublin, situated as it was between the east Ulster dialect of Meath and Louth to the north and the Leinster-Connacht dialect further south, may have reflected the characteristics of both in phonology and grammar.

In County Dublin itself the general rule was to place the stress on the initial vowel of words. With time it appears that the forms of the dative case took over the other case endings in the plural a tendency found to a lesser extent in other dialects.

In a letter written in Dublin in we find such examples as the following: English authorities of the Cromwellian period, aware that Irish was widely spoken in Dublin, arranged for its official use.

In several local dignitaries were ordered to oversee a lecture in Irish to be given in Dublin. There is contemporary evidence of the use of Irish in other urban areas at the time.

In it was found necessary to have an Oath of Abjuration rejecting the authority of the Pope read in Irish in Cork so that people could understand it.

In other urban centres the descendants of medieval Anglo-Norman settlers, the so-called Old English , were Irish-speaking or bilingual by the 16th century.

The census of showed that the towns and cities of Munster still had significant Irish-speaking populations. This continued until the end of the century, when the Gaelic revival saw the creation of a strong Irish—speaking network, typically united by various branches of the Conradh na Gaeilge , and accompanied by renewed literary activity.

Urban Irish has been the beneficiary, over the last few decades, of a rapidly expanding independent school system, known generally as Gaelscoileanna.

These schools teach entirely through Irish, and there are over thirty in Dublin alone. It is likely that the number of urban native speakers i.

It is presently uncertain whether the urban Irish of non-native speakers will become a dialect in its own right or grow further apart from native Gaeltacht Irish and become a creole i.

Its rules are followed by most schools in Ireland, though schools in and near Irish-speaking regions also use the local dialect.

There is no official standard for pronouncing the Irish language. The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish.

In recent decades contacts between speakers of different dialects have become more frequent and the differences between the dialects are less noticeable.

In pronunciation, Irish most closely resembles its nearest relatives, Scottish Gaelic and Manx. While broad—slender pairs are not unique to Irish being found, for example, in Russian , in Irish they have a grammatical function.

Irish is a fusional , VSO , nominative-accusative language. Irish is neither verb nor satellite framed , and makes liberal use of deictic verbs.

Nouns decline for 3 numbers: Adjectives agree with nouns in number , gender , and case. Adjectives generally follow nouns, though some precede or prefix nouns.

Demonstrative adjectives have proximal , medial , and distal forms. The prepositional case is called the dative by convention.

Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: Verbs conjugate for 3 persons and an impersonal form in which no agent can be determined.

There are two verbs for "to be", one for inherent qualities , and one for transient qualities. The passive voice and many other forms are periphrastic.

There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative , interrogative , subjunctive , relative clauses , etc.

There is a verbal noun , and verbal adjective. Verb forms are highly regular , many grammars recognise only 11 irregular verbs.

Prepositions inflect for person and number. Different prepositions govern different cases. Some prepositions govern different cases depending on intended semantics.

The word ag at , becomes agam at me in the first person singular. Irish shares this attribute with Russian. Numerals have 4 forms: In Irish, there are two classes of initial consonant mutations , which express grammatical relationship and meaning in verbs, nouns and adjectives:.

Mutations are often the only way to distinguish grammatical forms. For example, the only non-contextual way to distinguish possessive pronouns "her," "his" and "their", is through initial mutations since all meanings are represented by the same word a.

Due to initial mutation , prefixes , clitics , suffixes , root inflection , ending morphology , elision , sandhi , epinthesis , and assimilation ; the beginning, core, and end of words can each change radically and even simultaneously depending on context.

Modern Irish traditionally used the Latin alphabet without the letters j, k, q, w, x, y and z. However, some Gaelicised words use those letters: In idiomatic English usage, this diacritic is frequently referred to simply as the fada , where the adjective is used as a noun.

The fada serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality. In modern Irish, the letter h suffixed to a consonant indicates that the consonant is lenited.

It simplified and standardised the orthography. Many words had silent letters removed and vowel combination brought closer to the spoken language. Where multiple versions existed in different dialects for the same word, one or more were selected.

The standard spelling does not necessarily reflect the pronunciation used in particular dialects. For example, in standard Irish, bia , "food", has the genitive bia.

Another example would be the word crua , meaning "hard". Lenition of c , p , and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of other sounds was left unmarked.

Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were written using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.

Today, Gaelic type and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e. Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character sets see Latin Extended Additional chart.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Goidelic Gaelic language spoken in Ireland and by Irish people. For other uses, see Irish language disambiguation.

United Kingdom Northern Ireland [4]. Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland censuses of History of the Irish language.

Status of the Irish language. Irish language in Northern Ireland. Irish language outside Ireland and Irish language in Newfoundland.

Irish grammar , Irish declension , Irish conjugation , and Irish syntax. It included Greek, Hebrew and Celtic neologisms. Elizabethan Ireland and the Poetics of Difference.

Oxford University Press The Dialects of Irish: Study of a Changing Landscape. Walter de Gruyter, The Sound Structure of Modern Irish. De Gruyter Mouton Scriptural Instruction in the Vernacular: The Irish Society and its Teachers — It has not received the same degree of official recognition from the UK Government as Welsh.

With the advent of devolution , however, Scottish matters have begun to receive greater attention, and it achieved a degree of official recognition when the Gaelic Language Scotland Act was enacted by the Scottish Parliament on 21 April The key provisions of the Act are: It is not clear what the legal force of this wording is.

The Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament unanimously, with support from all sectors of the Scottish political spectrum, on 21 April Under the provisions of the Act, it will ultimately fall to BnG to secure the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland.

However, given there are no longer any monolingual Gaelic speakers, [34] following an appeal in the court case of Taylor v Haughney , involving the status of Gaelic in judicial proceedings, the High Court ruled against a general right to use Gaelic in court proceedings.

The Scottish Qualifications Authority offer two streams of Gaelic examination across all levels of the syllabus: Gaelic for learners equivalent to the modern foreign languages syllabus and Gaelic for native speakers equivalent to the English syllabus.

These are not widely recognised as qualifications, but are required for those taking part in certain competitions at the annual mods.

In October , a new agreement was made which allows Scottish Gaelic to be used formally between Scottish Government ministers and European Union officials.

The Scottish government will have to pay for the translation from Gaelic to other European languages. He said that "Allowing Gaelic speakers to communicate with European institutions in their mother tongue is a progressive step forward and one which should be welcomed".

Culture Minister Mike Russell said that "this is a significant step forward for the recognition of Gaelic both at home and abroad and I look forward to addressing the council in Gaelic very soon.

Seeing Gaelic spoken in such a forum raises the profile of the language as we drive forward our commitment to creating a new generation of Gaelic speakers in Scotland.

The Scottish Gaelic used in Machine-readable British passports differs from Irish passports in places.

Bilingual road signs, street names, business and advertisement signage in both Gaelic and English are gradually being introduced throughout Gaelic-speaking regions in the Highlands and Islands, including Argyll.

Bilingual railway station signs are now more frequent than they used to be. Practically all the stations in the Highland area use both English and Gaelic, and the spread of bilingual station signs is becoming ever more frequent in the Lowlands of Scotland, including areas where Gaelic has not been spoken for a long time.

The Ordnance Survey has acted in recent years to correct many of the mistakes that appear on maps. They announced in that they intended to correct them and set up a committee to determine the correct forms of Gaelic place names for their maps.

In the nineteenth century, Canadian Gaelic was the third-most widely spoken language in Canada [42] and Gaelic-speaking immigrant communities could be found throughout the country.

Gaelic poets in Canada produced a significant literary tradition. At the start of the 21st century, it was estimated that no more than people in Nova Scotia still spoke Scottish Gaelic as a first language.

In the Nova Scotia census, people claimed to have Gaelic as their first language , a figure that includes Irish Gaelic. It also broadcasts across Europe on the Astra 2 satellites.

There are also television programmes in the language on other BBC channels and on the independent commercial channels , usually subtitled in English.

The Education Scotland Act , which completely ignored Gaelic, and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language.

People still living can recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school. Gaelic-medium playgroups for young children began to appear in Scotland during the late s and early s.

Parent enthusiasm may have been a factor in the "establishment of the first Gaelic medium primary school units in Glasgow and Inverness in ".

The Columba Initiative , also known as colmcille formerly Iomairt Cholm Cille , is a body that seeks to promote links between speakers of Scottish Gaelic and Irish.

In May , the Nova Scotia government announced the funding of an initiative to support the language and its culture within the province.

Several public schools in Northeastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton offer Gaelic classes as part of the high-school curriculum. A number of Scottish and some Irish universities offer full-time degrees including a Gaelic language element, usually graduating as Celtic Studies.

Many continue to complete degrees, or to follow up as distance learners. A number of other colleges offer a one-year certificate course, which is also available online pending accreditation.

The isles of South Uist and Barra have a Catholic majority. All these churches have Gaelic-speaking congregations throughout the Western Isles. The widespread use of English in worship has often been suggested as one of the historic reasons for the decline of Gaelic.

The Church of Scotland is supportive today, [ vague ] but has a shortage of Gaelic-speaking ministers. The Free Church also recently announced plans to abolish Gaelic-language communion services, citing both a lack of ministers and a desire to have their congregations united at communion time.

From the sixth century to the present day, Scottish Gaelic has been used as the language of literature. Two prominent writers of the twentieth century are Anne Frater and Sorley Maclean.

Gaelic has its own version of European-wide names which also have English forms, for example: Not all traditional Gaelic names have direct equivalents in English: Oighrig , which is normally rendered as Euphemia Effie or Henrietta Etta formerly also as Henny or even as Harriet , or, Diorbhal , which is "matched" with Dorothy , simply on the basis of a certain similarity in spelling.

Many of these traditional Gaelic-only names are now regarded as old-fashioned, and hence are rarely or never used. Some Scottish names are Anglicized forms of Gaelic names: Several colours give rise to common Scottish surnames: Although some vowels are strongly nasal, instances of distinctive nasality are rare.

There are about nine diphthongs and a few triphthongs. Most consonants have both palatal and non-palatal counterparts, including a very rich system of liquids , nasals and trills i.

In medial and final position, the aspirated stops are preaspirated rather than aspirated. Scottish Gaelic is an Indo-European language with an inflecting morphology , verb—subject—object word order and two grammatical genders.

They are also normally classed as either masculine or feminine. A small number of words that used to belong to the neuter class show some degree of gender confusion.

For example, in some dialects am muir "the sea" behaves as a masculine noun in the nominative case, but as a feminine noun in the genitive na mara.

Nouns are marked for case in a number of ways, most commonly involving various combinations of lenition , palatalisation and suffixation.

There are 12 irregular verbs. Word order is strictly verb—subject—object, including questions, negative questions and negatives. Only a restricted set of preverb particles may occur before the verb.

The majority of the vocabulary of Scottish Gaelic is native Celtic. There are also many Brythonic influences on Scottish Gaelic.

Scottish Gaelic contains a number of apparently P-Celtic loanwords, but it is not always possible to disentangle P and Q Celtic words.

Some speakers use an English word even if there is a Gaelic equivalent, applying the rules of Gaelic grammar. This phenomenon was described over years ago, by the minister who compiled the account covering the parish of Stornoway in the New Statistical Account of Scotland , and examples can be found dating to the eighteenth century.

Irish has also influenced Lowland Scots and English in Scotland, but it is not always easy to distinguish its influence from that of Scottish Gaelic.

The modern Scottish Gaelic alphabet has 18 letters:. The letter h , now mostly used to indicate lenition historically sometimes inaccurately called aspiration of a consonant , was in general not used in the oldest orthography , as lenition was instead indicated with a dot over the lenited consonant.

The letters of the alphabet were traditionally named after trees, but this custom has fallen out of use. Certain 18th century sources used only an acute accent along the lines of Irish, such as in the writings of Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair —51 and the earliest editions —90 of Duncan Ban MacIntyre.

The New Testament set the standard for Scottish Gaelic. The Scottish Examination Board recommendations for Scottish Gaelic, the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions, were adopted by most publishers and agencies, although they remain controversial among some academics, most notably Ronald Black.

The quality of consonants palatalised or non-palatalised is indicated in writing by the vowels surrounding them. So-called "slender" consonants are palatalised while "broad" consonants are neutral or velarised.

The vowels e and i are classified as slender, and a , o , and u as broad. The spelling rule known as caol ri caol agus leathann ri leathann "slender to slender and broad to broad" requires that a word-medial consonant or consonant group followed by a written i or e be also preceded by an i or e ; and similarly if followed by a , o or u be also preceded by an a , o , or u.

This rule sometimes leads to the insertion of an orthographic vowel that does not influence the pronunciation of the vowel.

Unstressed vowels omitted in speech can be omitted in informal writing. Gaelic orthographic rules are mostly regular; however, English sound-to-letter correspondences cannot be applied to written Gaelic.

Scots English orthographic rules have also been used at various times in Gaelic writing. Notable examples of Gaelic verse composed in this manner are the Book of the Dean of Lismore and the Fernaig manuscript.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Germanic language that diverged from Middle English, see Scots language. For the Gaelic language family, see Goidelic languages.

For the Gaelic language spoken in Ireland, see Irish language. History of Scottish Gaelic. Norse-Gaelic zone, use of either or both languages.

Cumbric may have survived in this zone. Old Irish and Classical Gaelic. Linguistic divide in the middle ages. This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it.

Gaelic broadcasting in Scotland. Gaelic medium education in Scotland. Gaelic-speaking congregations in the Church of Scotland. Differences between Scottish Gaelic and Irish.

Alphabet Dependent and independent verb forms. Orthography Ogham Gaelic type Literature Dictionaries. Scotland portal linguistics portal.

Official Languages Act Republic of Ireland. Viewed 30 May Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 5 August The Edinburgh history of the Scots language.

The Makers of Scotland: Picts, Romans, Gaels, and Vikings. Bannerman, "Scottish Takeover", passim, representing the "traditional" view.

Gaelic in Scotland, — John Donald Publishers Ltd. Edinburgh Companion to the Gaelic Language. Language in Geographic Context. The Last of the Celts.

Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 13 August The Making of the Crofting Community.

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